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360 Degree Performance Appraisal
The 360 degree performance appraisal system is a way to make sure the appraisal is done in a full-fledged way considering all the elements surrounded to the employee. The 360 degree performance appraisal policy is very complicated and difficult to implement. One may ask why organization should invest in 360 degree performance appraisal system? Here the answer, is for long term development of employee and to create a strong leadership front. The 360 degree performance appraisal method provides a holistic approach towards the performance of employee. It includes very important factors such as collaboration, teamwork and leadership. Development plan based on the 360 degree performance appraisal system, effectively improve the overall performance of employee and productivity of organization.

What is a 360 degree performance appraisal?

The 360 degree performance appraisal system is advanced kind of appraisal which is used by many organizations where performance of employee is judged using the review of around 7 to 12 people. These people are working with the employee and they share some of their work environment. The feedback is gathered in the form of reviews in terms of competencies of the employee. The employee himself or herself also takes part in this appraisal with the help of self assessment. The 360 degree performance appraisal system is a way to improve the understanding of strength and weaknesses of employee with the help of creative feedback forms.

There exist 3 prime reasons due to which organization prefer to go for a 360 degree performance appraisal.

1. In order to get a enhance review about performance and prospective of the future leader.

2. To broaden the insight of manpower development and its needs.

3. In order to collect feedback from all the employees and to ensure the organizational justice.

360 Degree Performance Appraisal Process

The steps of 360 degree feedback process may slightly vary from organization to organization. However the schedule of the 360 degree feedback process remains quite same. A timeline has been identified for 360 degree performance review which includes different steps which organization has to follow. The step starts with the communication about 360 degree performance appraisal method and it ends at the re-evaluation of participants.

1. Communicating the 360 degree performance review- It is very crucial to communicate the entire process to the stakeholders of the organization. The purpose and objective of 360 degree performance appraisal process should be clearly mentioned and explained to each and every participant. Also the process through which the feedback will be gathered and how the feedback will be utilized should be clearly conveyed to the stakeholders.

Time required- This process could take 2-3 weeks to communicate about the appraisal system. This can be done through in personal meeting with supervisors, managers, leaders and employees. Also it can be communicated through emails and employees should be encouraged to come forward if they have any queries related to 360 degree performance appraisal process.

2. Selection of raters- The selection of rater is one of the most important steps in 360 degree performance appraisal system. We have to choose enough number of participants in order to receive data which is relevant and comprehensive. The number of raters will depend on the employee’s job profile and working relationship.
Time required- This process generally takes one to two weeks. The rater will include supervisors, direct reports, peers and perhaps some customers or clients.

3. Distribution of survey- Organizations can use online 360 degree feedback system which will allow a quicker distribution of questionnaire among the employees. The participants will receive an email with the link of questionnaires and notification. They can click on the link, start and complete the 360 degree review.
Time required- This may take one week in order to distribute survey among all the employees.

4. Submission of questionnaires- Once the survey is distributed, the participant will complete the survey online. The completed review will be provided to the evaluator. This process can take the longest time. The time required to submit a questionnaire depends on the number of raters which are involved, the job profile of employee and organization. It is highly recommended that a particular deadline should be assigned to the participant in order to quickly finish the process.

Time required- This process should take to 2-4 weeks in order to get completed feedback from the participant.

5. Completion of report- Once the review is been collected through the questionnaire method a confidential report is being produced. It depends on the delivery plan of organization sometimes once the report is ready it is directly sent to the participants or the result is been given through one-one feedback session.
Time required- if you are using an online system this very quick to produce the report, sometimes it takes 1 to 2 days.

6. Facilitation of feedback- It is recommended that the feedback should be given in a confidential manner by arranging the meeting with employee’s manager or coach. This meeting will allow a great understanding about the feedback report and also provides an opportunity to discuss the strength of the employee and areas which need to be improved.

Time required- It depends on the in depth of the feedback session generally a meeting can last for 1 to 2 hours for each employee.

7. Completion of development plan- Once review is done the development plan should be created for each of the participant based on the feedback reviews received through 360 degree evaluation. It is important to develop an actionable plan which will help to improve the employee. The areas where the improvement is required should be identified as key areas based on which a training programs, workshop, coaching, conferences or mentoring should be arranged for the employee. The development of such plan helps employees to improve quickly.

Time required- Generally completion of development program could take one to two weeks

8. Re- evaluating- 360 degree feedback system is not one of event; once you start the process it is important to see the consequences of the process. Specific goals and opportunities are outlined in the development program; it does make sense to check the progress. The re-evaluation of participant will enable the organization to see the changes and the area in which the employees are actually improved.

Time required- This process should be carried out after 8 to 12 months of 360 degree performance appraisal.

Is there any specific reason why is it called a 360 degree feedback? How to reduce bias in 360 degree feedback? What kind of questions consists in the questionnaire?

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